pulse2percept: A Python-Based Simulation Framework for Bionic Vision

pulse2percept is a BSD-licensed, open-source Python package for simulated prosthetic vision (SPV).

Built on the NumPy and SciPy stacks, as well as contributions from the broader Python community, pulse2percept provides an open-source implementation of several phosphene models for a wide range of state-of-the-art retinal prostheses, to provide insight into the visual experience provided by these devices.

As pulse2percept continues to be adopted by several research labs around the globe, we continue to improve its functionality and performance as well as add new implants, models, and datasets.

Project Team

Project Lead:

Jacob Granley

PhD Candidate

Project Affiliates:

Isaac Hoffman

Research Assistant

Lixing (Leo) Guo

Research Assistant

William Huang

Research Assistant

Principal Investigator:

Michael Beyeler

Assistant Professor


Ariel Rokem

Research Associate Professor
University of Washington

Geoffrey M. Boynton

University of Washington

Ione Fine

University of Washington


pulse2percept is an open-source Python simulation framework used to predict the perceptual experience of retinal prosthesis patients across a wide range of implant configurations.

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